Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Give me a Voice. Brain Science & Speech

Technion & UCLA researchers have identified a structured code for representing speech movements by neurons in the human brain. The researchers were able to directly decode vowels from neural activity - a finding which could allow individuals who are paralyzed to "speak" to people around them through a brain-computer interface

In the photo: the two language areas where cell reactions during speech were researched. The graphs present a selective code for vowels in an area in the frontal lobe and a non-selective code in an area in the temporal lobe (each color represents a neuron). The image highlights the brain areas where neurons with a structured code for speech generation were found. In the frontal region neurons were highly vowel-selective while in the temporal region (on the right) the code was broad and non-selective.

Technion and UCLA researchers have directly decoded vowels from the neural activity which leads to their articulation - a finding which could allow individuals who are paralyzed to "speak" to the people around them through a direct brain-computer interface. 

Prof. Shy Shoham and Dr. Ariel Tankus of the Technion Department of Biomedical Engineering, together with Prof. Itzhak Fried of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Tel Aviv University and Medical Center departments of Neurosurgery, describe the way in which neurons in different areas of the human brain encode different speech segments (vowels) during their articulation in the scientific journal Nature Communications

The discovery will indirectly enable scientists to decode the content of the subjects' speech based on brain activity alone. One of the possible applications of speech decoding from brain activity is the creation of a brain-computer interface that can restore speech faculties in paralyzed individuals who have lost them.

"There are diseases in which the patient's entire body is paralyzed, he is effectively 'locked in' (locked-in syndrome) and is unable to communicate with the environment, but his mind still functions", explains Prof. Shoham, Head of the Neural Interface Engineering Laboratory in the Technion Department of Biomedical Engineering. "Our long term goal is to restore these patients' ability to speak using systems that will include implanting electrodes in their brains, decoding the neural activity that encodes speech, and sounding artificial speech sounds. For this purpose, we wanted to first understand how the information about the articulated syllable is encoded in the electrical activity of an individual brain neuron and of a neuron population. In our experiments we identified cell populations that distinctly participate in the representation. For example, cells we registered in an area in the medial frontal lobe that includes the anterior cingulate cortex, surprised us in the manner in which they 'sharply' represented certain vowels but not others, even though the area is not necessarily known as having a major role in the speech generation process".

The experiments were conducted in the UCLA Medical Center with the participation of epilepsy patients, in whose brain Prof. Fried and his team implanted depth electrodes. The objective of the implant is to locate the epileptic focus, which is the area in the brain where epileptic seizures begin. After the surgery, the patients were hospitalized for a week or two with the electrodes in their brain, and waited for the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. 

During that time, Dr. Tankus, who was a post-doctoral fellow at UCLA and is now a researcher at the Technion, conducted experiments in which he asked patients to articulate vowels as well as syllables comprising a consonant and a vowel, and recorded the resulting neuronal activity in their brain. 

The researchers discovered two neuron populations that encode the information about the vowel articulated in an entirely different way. In the first population, identified in the medial frontal lobe, each neuron encodes only one or two vowels by changing its firing rate, but does not change its activity when other vowels are articulated. However, in the second population, located in the superior temporal gyrus, each neuron reacts to all vowels tested, but the cell's reaction strength changes gradually between vowels. 

Moreover, the researchers were able to deduce a mathematical arrangement of the manner in which the vowels are represented in the brain, showing it to match the phonetic vowel trapezoid, which is built according to the location of the highest point of the tongue during articulation. Thus, the researchers succeeded in connecting the brain representation with the anatomy and physiology of vowel articulation.

Understanding brain representation of speech generation constitutes a significant step on the road to decoding cellular activity using a computer, as Dr. Tankus explains: "We have developed a new algorithm that improves the ability to identify from brain activity which syllable was articulated, and this algorithm has allowed us to obtain very high identification rates. Based on the present findings, we are currently conducting experiments toward the creation of a brain-machine interface that will restore  speech faculties".



3 comments:

  1. I look forward to that neural science research and application. Maybe one day we can solve speech impediment cases. There are also cases when speech impediment is related to insomnia and an advisable route for treatment is insomnia treatment.

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